Relaxation enhancement by time-periodic flows
We study enhancement of diffusive mixing by fast incompressible time-periodic flows. The class of relaxation-enhancing flows that are especially efficient in speeding up mixing has been introduced in . The relaxation-enhancing property of a flow has been shown to be intimately related to the properties of the dynamical system it generates. In particular, time-independent flows u such that the operator u · ▽ has sufficiently smooth eigenfunctions are not relaxation-enhancing. Here we extend results of  to time-periodic flows u(x, t) and, in particular, show that there exist flows such that for each fixed time the flow is Hamiltonian, but the resulting time-dependent flow is relaxation-enhancing. Thus we confirm the physical intuition that time dependence of a flow may aid mixing. We also provide an extension of our results to the case of a nonlinear diffusion model. The proofs are based on a general criterion for the decay of a semigroup generated by an operator of the form Γ + iAL(t) with a negative unbounded self-adjoint operator Γ, a time-periodic self-adjoint operator-valued function L(t), and a parameter A ≫ 1.
Kiselev, A; Shterenberg, R; Zlatoš, A
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