Dendritic Cell/Cytokine-Induced Killer Cell Immunotherapy Combined with S-1 in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Study.
Purpose: Advanced pancreatic cancer has remained challenging to treat effectively. This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects and safety of immunotherapy with dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) administered with the chemotherapy (CT) S-1 in this malignancy.Experimental Design: Consecutive patients (n = 47) with advanced pancreatic cancer were treated with either DC-CIK + S-1, DC-CIK alone, S-1 alone, or best supportive care.Results: DC-CIK plus S-1 produced significantly longer median OS and PFS (212 and 136 days) compared with DC-CIK (128 and 85 days), CT (141 and 92 days), or supportive care only (52 and 43 days; P < 0.001). After adjusting for competing risk factors, DC-CIK combined with S-1 and receipt of 2 or more cycles of DC-CIK treatment remained independent predictors of disease-free and overall survival (P < 0.05). Phenotypic analysis of PBMCs demonstrated that the CD3+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD8+/CD28+ T-cell subsets were elevated (P < 0.05), while the CD3+/CD8+, CD3+/CD16+/CD56+ and CD4+/CD25+ cell subsets were significantly decreased after DC-CIK cell therapy (P < 0.05). There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. In addition, the mutational frequency in cell-free tumor DNA (cfDNA) declined in 4 of 14 patients who received DC-CIK, and was associated with a more favorable survival.Conclusions: Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with combined DC-CIK infusions and S-1 was safe, resulted in favorable PFS and OS, and modulated the peripheral blood immune repertoire. Clin Cancer Res; 23(17); 5066-73. ©2017 AACR.
Jiang, N; Qiao, G; Wang, X; Morse, MA; Gwin, WR; Zhou, L; Song, Y; Zhao, Y; Chen, F; Zhou, X; Huang, L; Hobeika, A; Yi, X; Xia, X; Guan, Y; Song, J; Ren, J; Lyerly, HK
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