Comparison of Radiation Exposure from Fixed Table Fluoroscopy to a Portable C-Arm During Ureteroscopy.
INTRODUCTION: Current treatment practices within the field of endourology require the routine use of radiation exposure to provide adequate imaging during urologic procedures. One such procedure requiring repeated radiation exposure during treatment is ureteroscopy. We set out to compare estimated fluoroscopic radiation exposures employing fixed table and portable C-arm fluoroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional dosimetry phantom model was placed supine on both fixed fluoroscopy and standard operating room tables. The models were then exposed to three separate 5-minute runs of fluoroscopic exposure. Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters were utilized in organ-specific locations to determine specific radiation exposure dosages. Absorbed radiation was determined for each organ location for both fluoroscopy units. Organ dose volumetric corrections were performed for skin and red bone marrow, to correct for the nonirradiated portion. Organ dose rate (ODR, mGy/s) and effective dose rate (EDR, mSv/s) were calculated, with values reported as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: There were found to be statistically significant elevations for both total EDR and organ-specific dose rates with the use of fixed table fluoroscopy compared with C-arm fluoroscopy. EDR was found to be 0.0240 ± 0.0019 mSv/s for the fixed table unit and 0.0029 ± 0.0005 mSv/s for the C-arm unit (p = 0.0024). Internal organs exposed to the most radiation during fixed table fluoroscopy included the gall bladder and stomach in comparison to C-arm fluoroscopy, which found elevated exposure in the kidneys, pancreas, and spleen. CONCLUSION: The routine use of fixed table fluoroscopy results in significantly elevated estimated organ doses and EDR when directly compared with C-arm fluoroscopy in model trials. This difference should be taken into consideration by practicing urologists when patient treatment requires the use of fluoroscopy to maintain radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable.
Cabrera, FJ; Shin, RH; Waisanen, KM; Nguyen, G; Wang, C; Scales, CD; Ferrandino, MN; Preminger, GM; Yoshizumi, TT; Lipkin, ME
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