Blocked Elements in 1-D and 2-D Arrays-Part II: Compensation Methods as Applied to Large Coherent Apertures.
In Part I of this paper, we detected elements blocked by ribs during simulated and in vivo transcostal liver scans, and we turned those elements OFF to compensate for the loss in visibility of liver vasculature. Here, we apply blocked-element detection and adaptive compensation to large synthetic-aperture (SA) data collected through rib samples ex vivo, in order to reduce near-field clutter and to recover lateral resolution. To construct large synthetic transmit and receive apertures, we collected the individual-channel signals from a fully sampled matrix array at multiple and known array locations across the tissue samples. The blocked elements in SAs were detected using the method presented in Part I and retroactively turned OFF, while the subapertures covering intercostal spaces were either compounded, or coherently summed using uniform and adaptive element-weighting schemes. Turning OFF the blocked elements reduced the reverberation clutter by 5 dB on average. Adaptive weighing of the nonblocked elements to rescale the attenuated spatial frequencies reduced sidelobe levels by up to 5 dB for the transcostal acquisitions, and demonstrated a potential to restore lateral resolution to the nonblocked levels. In addition, the arrival-time surfaces were reconstructed to estimate the aberration from intercostal spaces and to offer further means to compensate for the loss of focus quality in transthoracic imaging.
Jakovljevic, M; Bottenus, N; Kuo, L; Kumar, S; Dahl, JJ; Trahey, GE
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