Indexes of von Willebrand factor as biomarkers of aortic stenosis severity (from the Biomarkers of Aortic Stenosis Severity [BASS] study).
We correlated von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity indexes and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) with measures of aortic stenosis (AS) severity, bleeding, symptoms, and freedom from death or aortic valve replacement. Patients with AS (n = 66 [16 mild, 20 moderate, and 30 severe]) and aortic valve replacement (n = 21) were assessed with VWF antigen, VWF latex agglutination immunoturbidic activity, platelet function analyzer collagen plus adenosine diphosphate (PFA-CADP), VWF multimer ratio, and BNP level after echocardiography. In patients with AS, the mean gradient correlated with BNP (Spearman r = 0.29, p = 0.02), VWF latex agglutination immunoturbidic activity/VWF antigen ratio (r = -0.41, p <0.001), PFA-CADP (r = 0.49, p <0.001), and VWF multimer ratio (r = -0.76, p <0.001). The area under the curve for detection of severe AS was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48 to 0.77) by elevated BNP, 0.81 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.92) by PFA-CADP closure time, 0.69 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.82) by VWF latex agglutination immunoturbidic activity/VWF antigen ratio, and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.95) by VWF multimer ratio. For the VWF multimer ratio, a threshold of 0.15 yielded a sensitivity and specificity for severe AS of 77% and positive predictive value of 74%. Bleeding (in 14%) was associated with a prolonged PFA-CADP time and reduced VWF latex agglutination immunoturbidic activity/VWF antigen ratio. Symptoms were associated with elevated BNP and low Duke Activity Status Index score. In 66 patients with AS, freedom from death (n = 4) or aortic valve replacement (n = 22) was associated with PFA-CADP (p = 0.003), VWF high-molecular-weight multimers (p = 0.009), and VWF latex agglutination immunoturbidic activity/VWF antigen ratio (p <0.001) but not BNP (p = 0.32). In severe AS versus aortic valve replacement, the PFA-CADP and VWF multimer ratio differed (p <0.001), but BNP and the VWF latex agglutination immunoturbidic activity/VWF antigen ratio did not. In conclusion, the VWF activity indexes were associated with AS severity and bleeding and were predictive of cardiovascular outcomes.
Blackshear, JL; Wysokinska, EM; Safford, RE; Thomas, CS; Stark, ME; Shapiro, BP; Ung, S; Johns, GS; Chen, D
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