Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Blindness in Indonesian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.
PURPOSE: To report the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and DR-related blindness in an Indonesian population with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community health centers. STUDY POPULATION: We recruited 1184 people aged older than 30 years with type 2 diabetes residing in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Multistage, clustered random sampling based on regencies and districts in Jogjakarta was used. OBSERVATION PROCEDURE: Detailed interviews, general and eye examinations, and anthropometric measurement were performed. Disc- and macula-centered retinal photographs were taken to assess DR. The definition of DR followed a modified Airlie House classification system and was categorized into mild, moderate, and vision-threatening DR (VTDR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Prevalence and severity of DR. RESULTS: The median (range) age and diabetes duration of participants was 59 (52-65) and 4 (2-9) years. The prevalence of DR was 43.1% (95% confidence interval 39.6%-46.6%), with mild, moderate, and severe NPDR and PDR to be 9.41%, 7.46%, 11.1%, and 12.1%, respectively. The prevalence of VTDR was 26.3% (23.1%-29.5%). Longer diabetes duration, higher fasting glucose, presence of hypertension, and foot ulcers were associated with DR and VTDR. The prevalence of bilateral blindness was 4% and 7.7% in persons with DR and VTDR. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports a high prevalence of any DR and VTDR among Indonesian adults with type 2 diabetes in urban and rural areas: approximately 1 in 4 adults with diabetes had VTDR and 1 in 12 of those with VTDR was bilaterally blind, suggesting the need for appropriate screening and management of DR among the Indonesian population.
Sasongko, MB; Widyaputri, F; Agni, AN; Wardhana, FS; Kotha, S; Gupta, P; Widayanti, TW; Haryanto, S; Widyaningrum, R; Wong, TY; Kawasaki, R; Wang, JJ
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