Combined poor diabetes control indicators are associated with higher risks of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema than poor glycemic control alone.
PURPOSE: To examine the association of individual and combined indicators of diabetes control with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical, cross-sectional study, 613 adults with type 2 diabetes (372 any diabetic retinopathy; 183 any diabetic macular edema) were examined. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed from fundus photographs; diabetic macular edema from Ocular Coherence Tomography scans; and HbA1c and serum lipid values from fasting blood samples. Poor glucose control was defined as HbA1c≥7%; poor blood pressure control as SBP≥130/DBP≥80; and poor lipid control as total cholesterol:HDL ratio≥4.0. The association of poor glucose control, poor blood pressure control and poor lipid control alone and in combination (poor glucose & blood pressure control; poor glucose & lipid control; poor blood pressure & lipid control; and poor glucose, blood pressure & lipid control) with diabetic retinopathy/diabetic macular edema was examined using multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Patients' mean±standard deviation age was 64.9±11.6 years (57% male). In adjusted models, compared to those with good control of all indicators (n = 99, 18.3%), the odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) of having any diabetic retinopathy was 2.44 (1.34-4.46), 3.75 (1.75-8.07), 4.64 (2.13-10.12) and 2.28 (1.01-5.16) for poor glucose control only; poor glucose & blood pressure control; poor glucose & lipid control; and poor glucose, blood pressure & lipid control, respectively. Correspondingly for diabetic macular edema, they were 3.19 (1.55-6.59); 3.60 (1.58-8.22); 2.76 (1.18-6.44); and 3.01 (1.18-7.67), respectively. Odds were not significantly increased for other indicators. DISCUSSION: Compared to individual indicators of poor diabetes control, risk of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema increased three to fourfold with a combination of these indicators. Targeting combined diabetes control indicators is important to reduce risk of diabetic retinopathy/diabetic macular edema.
Fenwick, EK; Xie, J; Man, REK; Sabanayagam, C; Lim, L; Rees, G; Wong, TY; Lamoureux, EL
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)