STDP in a bistable synapse model based on CaMKII and associated signaling pathways.
The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a key role in the induction of long-term postsynaptic modifications following calcium entry. Experiments suggest that these long-term synaptic changes are all-or-none switch-like events between discrete states. The biochemical network involving CaMKII and its regulating protein signaling cascade has been hypothesized to durably maintain the evoked synaptic state in the form of a bistable switch. However, it is still unclear whether experimental LTP/LTD protocols lead to corresponding transitions between the two states in realistic models of such a network. We present a detailed biochemical model of the CaMKII autophosphorylation and the protein signaling cascade governing the CaMKII dephosphorylation. As previously shown, two stable states of the CaMKII phosphorylation level exist at resting intracellular calcium concentration, and high calcium transients can switch the system from the weakly phosphorylated (DOWN) to the highly phosphorylated (UP) state of the CaMKII (similar to a LTP event). We show here that increased CaMKII dephosphorylation activity at intermediate Ca(2+) concentrations can lead to switching from the UP to the DOWN state (similar to a LTD event). This can be achieved if protein phosphatase activity promoting CaMKII dephosphorylation activates at lower Ca(2+) levels than kinase activity. Finally, it is shown that the CaMKII system can qualitatively reproduce results of plasticity outcomes in response to spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and presynaptic stimulation protocols. This shows that the CaMKII protein network can account for both induction, through LTP/LTD-like transitions, and storage, due to its bistability, of synaptic changes.
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