Development and validation of a ureteral anastomosis simulation model for surgical training.
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a new ureteral anastomosis simulation model. METHODS: We designed a training model to simulate the task of ureteral anastomosis required for ureteroneocystostomy that is suitable for robotic and laparoscopic approaches. Face validity was measured using questions related to surgical authenticity and educational value of the model. Construct validity was measured by comparing scores using Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills Scale (GOALS) scale between "procedure experts," "robotic experts," and "trainees" groups. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare differences in the scores and operating times between the 3 groups. Associations between previous surgical experience and performance scores were measured using the Spearman rho correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Four urologists experienced with robotically assisted ureteroneocystostomies were included in the procedure experts group. The robotic experts group consisted of 5 gynecologists experienced in robotic surgery. The trainees group consisted of 12 urology and gynecology upper-level residents and fellows. All experts agreed or strongly agreed that the model was authentic to the live procedure and a useful training tool. Mean (SD) total GOALS scores were significantly better for the procedure experts group compared to the robotic experts group and to the trainees group (P=0.02 vs P=0.004, respectively). The robotic experts group's GOALS scores were also significantly higher than that of the trainees group (P=0.05). There were no differences in mean times required to complete the procedure. Surgical experience moderately correlated with scores on all 3 assessment scales. CONCLUSIONS: Superior performance on the model by more experienced surgeons demonstrates evidence of construct validity. This authentic and useful model allows surgeons to learn and practice the ureteral anastomosis portion of the ureteral reimplantation surgeries before operating on a live patient.
Tunitsky, E; Murphy, A; Barber, MD; Simmons, M; Jelovsek, JE
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