Long-term outcomes and management of the heart transplant recipient.
Cardiac transplantation remains the gold standard in the treatment of advanced heart failure. With advances in immunosuppression, long-term outcomes continue to improve despite older and higher risk recipients. The median survival of the adult after heart transplantation is currently 10.7 years. While early graft failure and multiorgan system dysfunction are the most important causes of early mortality, malignancy, rejection, infection, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy contribute to late mortality. Chronic renal dysfunction is common after heart transplantation and occurs in up to 68% of patients by year 10, with 6.2% of patients requiring dialysis and 3.7% undergoing renal transplant. Functional outcomes after heart transplantation remain an area for improvement, with only 26% of patients working at 1-year post-transplantation, and are likely related to the high incidence of depression after cardiac transplantation. Areas of future research include understanding and managing primary graft dysfunction and reducing immunosuppression-related complications.
McCartney, SL; Patel, C; Del Rio, JM
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