Two-Dimensional Lead(II) Halide-Based Hybrid Perovskites Templated by Acene Alkylamines: Crystal Structures, Optical Properties, and Piezoelectricity.
A series of two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) crystals, based on acene alkylamine cations (i.e., phenylmethylammonium (PMA), 2-phenylethylammonium (PEA), 1-(2-naphthyl)methanammonium (NMA), and 2-(2-naphthyl)ethanammonium (NEA)) and lead(II) halide (i.e., PbX42-, X = Cl, Br, and I) frameworks, and their corresponding thin films were fabricated and examined for structure-property relationship. Several new or redetermined crystal structures are reported, including those for (NEA)2PbI4, (NEA)2PbBr4, (NMA)2PbBr4, (PMA)2PbBr4, and (PEA)2PbI4. Non-centrosymmetric structures from among these 2D HOIPs were confirmed by piezoresponse force microscopy-especially noteworthy is the structure of (PMA)2PbBr4, which was previously reported as centrosymmetric. Examination of the impact of organic cation and inorganic layer choice on the exciton absorption/emission properties, among the set of compounds considered, reveals that perovskite layer distortion (i.e., Pb-I-Pb bond angle between adjacent PbI6 octahedra) has a more global effect on the exciton properties than octahedral distortion (i.e., variation of I-Pb-I bond angles and discrepancy among Pb-I bond lengths within each PbI6 octahedron). In addition to the characteristic sharp exciton emission for each perovskite, (PMA)2PbCl4, (PEA)2PbCl4, (NMA)2PbCl4, and (PMA)2PbBr4 exhibit separate, broad "white" emission in the long wavelength range. Piezoelectric compounds identified from these 2D HOIPs may be considered for future piezoresponse-type energy or electronic applications.
Du, K-Z; Tu, Q; Zhang, X; Han, Q; Liu, J; Zauscher, S; Mitzi, DB
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