Incidence, Long-Term Outcomes, and Healthcare Utilization of Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Disseminated Mycobacterium avium Complex From 1992-2015.
BACKGROUND: Despite the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continue to develop late-stage complications including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC), and death. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults who developed DMAC in the Duke University Health System from 1992 to 2015 to determine the incidence, long-term outcomes, and healthcare utilization of this population at high risk for poor outcomes. Findings were stratified by the "pre-cART" era (before January 1, 1996) and "post-cART" thereafter. RESULTS: We identified 330 adult HIV-infected patients newly diagnosed with DMAC, the majority (75.2%) of whom were male and non-Hispanic black (69.1%), with median age of 37 years. Incidence of DMAC declined significantly from 65.3/1000 in 1992 to 2.0/1000 in 2015, and the proportion of females and non-Hispanic blacks was significantly higher in the post-cART era. The standardized mortality ratios for DMAC patients who received cART were 69, 58, 27, 5.9, and 6.8 at years 1-5, respectively, after DMAC diagnosis. For patients diagnosed with DMAC in 2000 or later (n = 135), 20% were newly diagnosed with HIV in the 3 months preceding presentation with DMAC. Those with established HIV had a median time from HIV diagnosis to DMAC diagnosis of 7 years and were more likely to be black, rehospitalized in the 6 months after DMAC diagnosis, and die in the long term. CONCLUSIONS: Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex continues to be a lethal diagnosis in the cART era, disproportionately afflicts minority populations, and reflects both delayed entry into care and failure to consistently engage care.
Collins, LF; Clement, ME; Stout, JE
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