PECAM-1: conflicts of interest in inflammation.
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a cell adhesion and signaling receptor that is expressed on hematopoietic and endothelial cells. PECAM-1 is vital to the regulation of inflammatory responses, as it has been shown to serve a variety of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Pro-inflammatory functions of PECAM-1 include the facilitation of leukocyte transendothelial migration and the transduction of mechanical signals in endothelial cells emanating from fluid shear stress. Anti-inflammatory functions include the dampening of leukocyte activation, suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and the maintenance of vascular barrier integrity. Although PECAM-1 has been well-characterized and studied, the mechanisms through which PECAM-1 regulates these seemingly opposing functions, and how they influence each other, are still not completely understood. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to provide an overview of the pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of PECAM-1 with special attention paid to mechanistic insights that have thus far been revealed in the literature in hopes of gaining a clearer picture of how these opposing functions might be integrated in a temporal and spatial manner on the whole organism level. A better understanding of how inflammatory responses are regulated should enable the development of new therapeutics that can be used in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders.
Privratsky, JR; Newman, DK; Newman, PJ
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