Endothelial dysfunction in cerebral microcirculation during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in newborn lambs.
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory stimuli or mechanical stresses associated with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass could potentially impair cerebrovascular function, resulting in inadequate cerebral perfusion. We hypothesize that hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with endothelial or vascular smooth muscle dysfunction and associated cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore we studied the cerebrovascular response to endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, endothelium-independent nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside, and vasoactive amine, serotonin, in newborn lambs undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (nasopharygeal temperature = 18 degrees C). METHODS: Studies were performed on 13 newborn lambs equipped with a closed cranial window, allowing for direct visualization of surface pial arterioles. Six animals were studied while undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, whereas seven served as nonbypass, warm (37 degrees C) controls. Pial arteriolar caliber (range = 111 to 316 microm diameter) was monitored using video microscopy. RESULTS: Topical application of acetylcholine caused a dose-dependent increase in arteriolar diameter in the control group that was absent in animals undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass did not alter the vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside. Furthermore, the contractile response to serotonin was fully expressed during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. CONCLUSIONS: The specific loss of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation suggests endothelial cell dysfunction rather than impaired ability of vascular smooth muscle to respond to nitric oxide. It is speculated that loss of endothelium-dependent regulatory factors in the cerebral microcirculation during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass may enhance vasoconstriction, and impaired cerebrovascular function may be a basis for associated neurologic injury during or after hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.
Wagerle, LC; Russo, P; Dahdah, NS; Kapadia, N; Davis, DA
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