Pediatric transfusion therapy and blood conservation
© Cambridge University Press 2015. The perioperative period is associated with a high risk of blood product transfusion. Blood conservation and the avoidance of allogeneic transfusion are imperative given the major impacts of transfusion on mortality and morbidity. Improvements in donor screening and blood collection and processing have drastically lowered the infectious risks of blood transfusion while there is growing concern over the noninfectious consequences of transfusion. Risks of transfusion Infectious complications The risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion in the USA is approximately 1 in 1.5 million donations due to donor screening and viral nucleic acid testing. Increasingly, infections such as the West Nile Virus and prion diseases continue to threaten our blood supply and challenge the screening process. Table 26.1 demonstrates a summary of viral transfusion complications. Bacterial contamination of blood and platelet packs remains a common problem, accounting for 10% of U.S. and U.K. transfusion-related fatalities. Bacterial contamination of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) occurs uncommonly (<1:1000000 units) but is associated with nearly 100% mortality. The most common organism is Yersinia enterolitica. Platelets, which cannot be refrigerated, are more likely to suffer contamination, but the clinical course of the infected recipient is variable, with a mortalty of 25%.
MacHovec, KA; Craig Weldon, B
- Essentials of Pediatric Anesthesiology
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International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)
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