Clinical Experience Of Lenalidomide Plus Low Dose Dexamethasone As First-Line Therapy For Multiple Myeloma At a Large County Hospital Caring For An Indigent Population
There is ample data for the response rates and clinical outcomes for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) treated with first-line lenalidomide and dexamethasone (LEN/DEX). Phase II and III studies have reported objective response rates (ORR) in the range of 70-90%. However, extrapolating from clinical trials to ‘real world' clinical practice is sometimes difficult. This is particularly so when it comes to large city hospital systems such as Jackson Memorial Hospital (JMH) in Miami, Florida. JMH is the third-largest public hospital and third-largest teaching hospital in the United States. Patients are primarily uninsured or insured through Medicaid. Additionally, one might surmise, that for a medication like LEN- with a relatively narrow therapeutic index, high cost, and cumbersome prescribing/dispensing requirements- outcomes in the ‘real world' might be inferior to those cited in clinical study. We endeavored to explore such outcomes in JMH to determine whether the benefits of this high cost drug in this setting are concordant with published data.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients enrolled into the Celgene patient assistance program and prescribed LEN from January 1, 2010 through July 30, 2013 at JMH. We identified 96 patients enrolled into this program, 35 patients received LEN/DEX as first-line therapy for MM and are evaluable for this analysis. The primary end-point for analysis was response at 4 months.
Medical records of 35 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 59 (46-75), majority of patients were female (60%), and 29% were black. Consistent with our patient population, 71.4% of patients were Hispanic, 44% were uninsured, and 64% had Medicaid. IgG (60%) was the most common heavy chain involved while 3 patients had light chain disease only. The majority of patients (88.6%) had stage III disease by the Durie-Salmon criteria, and 37.1% had ISS stage III disease. Cytogenetic studies were evaluable in 30 patients: 66.7% were standard-risk, 30% intermediate-risk and 3.3 % high-risk according to mSMART risk classification. At 4-month follow-up, 26 (74.3%) patients had an OR: 6 (17.1%) patients had CR, 7 (20%) had VGPR, and 13 (37.1%) had PR. 6 (17.1%) patients had progressive disease, change in therapy, or were lost to follow-up. There were no documented deep venous thromboses, a known risk of LEN therapy. Only 8 patients (23%) underwent autologous stem cell transplant following primary therapy.
Responses with upfront LEN/DEX in MM at JMH, were relatively similar to published data in large clinical studies. This provides support for the extrapolation of data from well supported clinical trials at fully-resourced medical institutions, for an oral chemotherapy drug with significant potential toxicities and logistical barriers, to a primarily Medicaid patient population in a county hospital.
No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Deutsch, YE; Dammrich, DJ; Fabregas, JC; Pimentel, A; Stefanovic, A; Hoffman, JE
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