Pilot Evaluation of Angiogenesis Signaling Factor Response after Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Purpose To identify changes in a broad panel of circulating angiogenesis factors after bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), a purely ischemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to entry into the study. Twenty-five patients (21 men; mean age, 61 years; range, 30-81 years) with Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 5 or biopsy-proven HCC and who were undergoing TAE were enrolled from October 15, 2014, through December 2, 2015. Nineteen plasma angiogenesis factors (angiopoietin 2; hepatocyte growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor AA and BB; placental growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor A and D; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3; osteopontin; transforming growth factor β1 and β2; thrombospondin 2; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; interleukin 6 [IL-6]; stromal cell-derived factor 1; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1; and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 5 weeks after TAE and were compared with baseline levels by using paired Wilcoxon tests. Tumor response was assessed according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Angiogenesis factor levels were compared between responders and nonresponders by mRECIST criteria by using unpaired Wilcoxon tests. Results All procedures were technically successful with no complications. Fourteen angiogenesis factors showed statistically significant changes following TAE, but most changes were transient. IL-6 was upregulated only 1 day after the procedure, but showed the largest increases of any factor. Osteopontin and VCAM-1 demonstrated sustained upregulation at all time points following TAE. At 3-month follow-up imaging, 11 patients had responses to TAE (complete response, n = 6; partial response, n = 5) and 11 patients were nonresponders (stable disease, n = 9; progressive disease, n = 2). In nonresponders, the percent change in IL-6 on the day after TAE (P = .033) and the mean percent change in osteopontin after TAE (P = .024) were significantly greater compared with those of responders. Conclusion Multiple angiogenesis factors demonstrated significant upregulation after TAE. VCAM-1 and osteopontin demonstrated sustained upregulation, whereas the rest were transient. IL-6 and osteopontin correlated significantly with radiologic response after TAE. © RSNA, 2017.
Ronald, J; Nixon, AB; Marin, D; Gupta, RT; Janas, G; Chen, W; Suhocki, PV; Pabon-Ramos, W; Sopko, DR; Starr, MD; Brady, JC; Hurwitz, HI; Kim, CY
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