Systematic Evaluation of Endothelin 1 Measurement Relative to Traditional and Modern Biomarkers for Clinical Assessment and Prognosis in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure: Serial Measurement and Multimarker Testing.
Objectives: To define the role of single or serial measurement of endothelin 1 (ET-1) for prognostication beyond traditional and modern markers of risk in heart failure (HF). Methods: In total, 115 patients with chronic systolic HF were followed for 10 months. Clinical assessment and ET-1, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), highly sensitive troponin I (hsTnI), soluble ST2 (sST2), and galectin 3 were measured at each visit. Results: Elevated ET-1 was associated with worse HF, lower right ventricular function, higher pulmonary pressure, and higher left atrial volume index despite similar left ventricular function. ET-1 correlated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. A model containing traditional risk factors, ET-1, NT-proBNP, hsTnI, and sST2 best predicted cardiovascular events, and ET-1 improved reclassification. In an adjusted time-integrated model, percent time spent with ET-1 of 5.90 pg/mL or less was predictive of fewer cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.91). ET-1 reduction over time was associated with a lower rate of cardiovascular events compared with increasing or stable ET-1 (24.4% vs 50.0%). Conclusions: ET-1 may be a unique predictor of HF prognosis, complementing other biomarkers in a multimarker profile. Serial measurement of ET-1 may provide additional prognostic information.
Gaggin, HK; Truong, QA; Gandhi, PU; Motiwala, SR; Belcher, AM; Weiner, RB; Baggish, AL; Januzzi, JL
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