Estimated tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate exposure levels for US infants suggest potential health risks.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been widely used as a flame retardant and is commonly detected in environmental samples. Biomonitoring studies relying on urinary metabolite levels (i.e. bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP)) demonstrate widespread exposure, but TDCIPP intake is unknown. Intake data area critical component of meaningful risk assessments and are needed to elucidate the potential health impacts of TDCIPP exposure. Using biomonitoring data, we estimated TDCIPP intake for infants. Infants aged 2-18 months were recruited from central, North Carolina (n=43, recruited 2014-2015), and spot urine samples were analyzed for BDCIPP. TDCIPP intake rates were estimated using daily urine excretion and the fraction of TDCIPP excreted as BDCIPP in urine. Daily TDCIPP intake estimates ranged from 0.01-15.03 μg/kg-day for children included in our assessment, with some variation depending on model assumptions. The U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) previously established an acceptable daily intake of 5μg/kg-day for non-cancer health risks. Depending on modeling assumptions, we found that 2-9% percent of infants had TDCIPP intake estimates above this threshold. Our results indicate that current TDCIPP exposure levels could pose health risks for highly exposed infants.
- Hoffman, K; Gearhart-Serna, L; Lorber, M; Webster, TF; Stapleton, HM
- August 2017
Volume / Issue
- 4 / 8
Start / End Page
- 334 - 338
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)