Catheter-related bloodstream infections in children.
EPIDEMIOLOGY: Patient characteristics and system-level factors place children at increased risk for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). National Healthcare Safety Network data from 36 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) demonstrate a pooled mean of 5.3 CR-BSIs per 1000 catheter-days and a median of 3.5 CR-BSIs per 1000 catheter-days. Almost 60% of CR-BSIs in children are caused by gram-positive bacteria. In the PICU setting, arterial catheterization, increased duration of catheterization, use of extracorporeal life support, and presence of a genetic abnormality are independent risk factors for CR-BSIs. ECONOMICS: In children, cost estimates range from $36,000 to $50,000 per CR-BSI. TREATMENT: Empiric therapy should target gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, with the choice of drug treatment based on local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Results from pediatric studies shows that catheter removal is indicated for all cases of candidemia and persistent bacteremia. PREVENTION: Based on limited data, antimicrobial lock therapy may be appropriate in certain clinical situations, and multifaceted interventions are effective in reducing CR-BSIs in children. In one center, maximum barrier precautions during insertion, antimicrobial-impregnated catheters, annual hospital-wide handwashing campaigns, physical barriers between beds, and use of 2% chlorhexidine skin disinfectant decreased CR-BSIs.
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