Smoking status and health-related quality of life: as findings from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data.
To examine the relationship between smoking status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).Our study used a cross-sectional analysis with self-reported data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).United States.Subjects were a representative sample of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 years and older. After excluding respondents who reported being pregnant and for whom smoking status could not be determined, we included 209,031 respondents.Multiple logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations of smoking status with the four HRQOL items, controlling for demographic and health-related characteristics.Current smokers had a higher likelihood of reporting poor general health status compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers had a higher likelihood of reporting > or = 14 days of poor physical health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-1.77), poor mental health (OR = 1.99, 95% Cl = 1.84-2.16), and activity limitations (OR = 1.80, 95% Cl = 1.63-2.00). Similarly, compared with ex-smokers, current smokers had a higher likelihood of reporting > or = 14 days of poor physical health (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.19-1.42), poor mental health (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.50-1.81), and activity limitations (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.32-1.65). Age, income, and presence of comorbidities also significantly explained variation in HRQOL.Our study reaffirms the significant association between smoking and HRQOL in a large nationally representative sample. Poor health associated with smoking persists as a major public health problem, and effective preventive and smoking cessation efforts should be undertaken.
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