Risk Stratification Among Men With Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 Category 3 Transition Zone Lesions: Is Biopsy Always Necessary?
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine the clinical and MRI characteristics of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCA) (Gleason score ≥ 3 + 4) in men with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) category 3 transition zone (TZ) lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2014 to 2016, 865 men underwent prostate MRI and MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion biopsy (FB). A subset of 90 FB-naïve men with 96 PI-RADSv2 category 3 TZ lesions was identified. Patients were imaged at 3 T using a body coil. Images were assigned a PI-RADSv2 category by an experienced radiologist. Using clinical data and imaging features, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictors of clinically significant PCA. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 66 years, and the mean prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) was 0.13 ng/mL2. PCA was detected in 34 of 96 (35%) lesions, 14 of which (15%) harbored clinically significant PCA. In univariate analysis, DWI score, prostate volume, and PSAD were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of clinically significant PCA with a suggested significance for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and prostate-specific antigen value (p < 0.10). On multivariate analysis, PSAD and lesion ADC were the most important covariates. The combination of both PSAD of 0.15 ng/mL2 or greater and an ADC value of less than 1000 mm2/s yielded an AUC of 0.91 for clinically significant PCA (p < 0.001). If FB had been restricted to these criteria, only 10 of 90 men would have undergone biopsy, resulting in diagnosis of clinically significant PCA in 60% with eight men (9%) misdiagnosed (false-negative). CONCLUSION: The yield of FB in men with PI-RADSv2 category 3 TZ lesions for clinically significant PCA is 15% but significantly improves to 60% (AUC > 0.9) among men with PSAD of 0.15 ng/mL2 or greater and lesion ADC value of less than 1000 mm2/s.
Felker, ER; Raman, SS; Margolis, DJ; Lu, DSK; Shaheen, N; Natarajan, S; Sharma, D; Huang, J; Dorey, F; Marks, LS
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