Pathogenic Mutations Induce Partial Structural Changes in the Native β-Sheet Structure of Transthyretin and Accelerate Aggregation.
Amyloid formation of natively folded proteins involves global and/or local unfolding of the native state to form aggregation-prone intermediates. Here we report solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural studies of amyloid derived from wild-type (WT) and more aggressive mutant forms of transthyretin (TTR) to investigate the structural changes associated with effective TTR aggregation. We employed selective 13C labeling schemes to investigate structural features of β-structured core regions in amyloid states of WT and two mutant forms (V30M and L55P) of TTR. Analyses of the 13C-13C correlation solid-state NMR spectra revealed that WT TTR aggregates contain an amyloid core consisting of nativelike CBEF and DAGH β-sheet structures, and the mutant TTR amyloids adopt a similar amyloid core structure with nativelike CBEF and AGH β-structures. However, the V30M mutant amyloid was shown to have a different DA β-structure. In addition, strand D is more disordered even in the native state of L55P TTR, indicating that the pathogenic mutations affect the DA β-structure, leading to more effective amyloid formation. The NMR results are consistent with our mass spectrometry-based thermodynamic analyses that showed the amyloidogenic precursor states of WT and mutant TTRs adopt folded structures but the mutant precursor states are less stable than that of WT TTR. Analyses of the oxidation rate of the methionine side chain also revealed that the side chain of residue Met-30 pointing between strands D and A is not protected from oxidation in the V30M mutant, while protected in the native state, supporting the possibility that the DA β-structure might be disrupted in the V30M mutant amyloid.
Lim, KH; Dasari, AKR; Ma, R; Hung, I; Gan, Z; Kelly, JW; Fitzgerald, MC
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