Painful hardware. What to do?
Pain emanating from an orthopaedic implant can be a difficult problem to identify. Hardware removal frequently is performed with successful results but may not always lead to resolution of all symptoms. A combination of patient history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing should guide management. Proper patient counseling on treatment options and outcomes is equally important to give patients reasonable expectations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature and advise on the most appropriate means to evaluate and treat these patients. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.
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