Is Corneal Arcus Independently Associated With Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Asians?
PURPOSE: To examine the longitudinal relationship between baseline corneal arcus (CA) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ethnic Indian and Malay adults in Singapore. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. METHODS: Indian and Malay adults aged 40-80 years were recruited for baseline and 6-year follow-up visits between 2004-2009 and 2010-2015, respectively (follow-up response rate 73.9%). CA was assessed by ophthalmologists using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The main outcome was self-reported incident CVD, defined as new myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or stroke, which developed between baseline and follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between baseline CA and incident CVD, adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors including age, sex, serum cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. We further conducted sex-stratified analyses to identify possible effect modifications. RESULTS: Of the total 3637 participants (overall mean [SD] age: 56  years, 46% male) with available follow-up data, without history of CVD at baseline, 208 (5.7%) incident CVD cases were reported. Participants with CA were more likely to have incident CVD (7.5%) than those without (4.9%). After controlling for traditional CVD risk factors, CA was independently associated with incident CVD (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.52 [1.07-2.16]) in adjusted models. In sex-stratified models, associations between CA and incident CVD were seen in men (1.73 [1.12-2.67]) and not in women (1.05 [0.56-1.97]). CONCLUSIONS: CA is associated with incident CVD, independent of serum lipids and traditional CVD risk factors, in ethnic Malay and Indian men. Our finding suggests that CA is an additional observable indicator of CVD in men.
Wong, MYZ; Man, REK; Gupta, P; Lim, SH; Lim, B; Tham, Y-C; Sabanayagam, C; Wong, TY; Cheng, C-Y; Lamoureux, EL
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