Copper Acquisition and Utilization in Fungi.
Fungal cells colonize and proliferate in distinct niches, from soil and plants to diverse tissues in human hosts. Consequently, fungi are challenged with the goal of obtaining nutrients while simultaneously elaborating robust regulatory mechanisms to cope with a range of availability of nutrients, from scarcity to excess. Copper is essential for life but also potentially toxic. In this review we describe the sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms by which fungi acquire, utilize, and control this biochemically versatile trace element. Fungal pathogens, which can occupy distinct host tissues that have their own intrinsic requirements for copper homeostasis, have evolved mechanisms to acquire copper to successfully colonize the host, disseminate to other tissues, and combat host copper bombardment mechanisms that would otherwise mitigate virulence.
Smith, AD; Logeman, BL; Thiele, DJ
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