Utility of Growth Differentiation Factor-15, A Marker of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation, in Chronic Heart Failure: Insights From the HF-ACTION Study.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the relationship between growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and clinical outcomes in ambulatory patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: The prognostic utility of GDF-15, a member of the transforming growth factor-β cytokine family, among patients with HF is unclear. METHODS: We assessed GDF-15 levels in 910 patients enrolled in the HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training) trial, a randomized clinical trial of exercise training in patients with HFrEF. Median follow-up was 30 months. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the relationships between GDF-15 and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The median GDF-15 concentration was 1,596 pg/ml. Patients in the highest tertile of GDF-15 were older and had measurements of more severe HF (higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] concentrations and lower peak oxygen uptake on cardiopulmonary exercise testing [CPX]). GDF-15 therapy was a significant predictor of all-cause death (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.03 when GDF-15 was doubled; p < 0.0001). This association persisted after adjustment for demographic and clinical and biomarkers including high sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and NT-proBNP (HR: 1.30 per doubling of GDF-15; p = 0.029). GDF-15 did not improve discrimination (as measured by changes in c-statistics and the integrated discrimination improvement) in addition to baseline variables, including hs-TnT and NT-proBNP or variables found in CPX testing. CONCLUSIONS: In demographically diverse, well-managed patients with HFrEF, GDF-15 therapy provided independent prognostic information in addition to established predictors of outcomes. These data support a possible role for GDF-15 in the risk stratification of patients with chronic HFrEF. (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training [HF-ACTION]; NCT00047437).
Sharma, A; Stevens, SR; Lucas, J; Fiuzat, M; Adams, KF; Whellan, DJ; Donahue, MP; Kitzman, DW; Piña, IL; Zannad, F; Kraus, WE; O'Connor, CM; Felker, GM
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