Mortality under plausible interventions on antiretroviral treatment and depression in HIV-infected women: an application of the parametric g-formula.
PURPOSE: Among HIV-infected persons, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and depression are strongly associated with mortality. We estimated reductions in 5-year mortality in Women's Interagency HIV Study participants under plausible hypothetical increases in ART initiation and reductions in depression (CES-D score≥16). METHODS: We followed 885 ART-naïve Women's Interagency HIV Study participants for 5 years from their first study visit after April 1998 to death or censoring. We used the parametric extended g-formula to estimate cumulative mortality under the natural course (NC) and alternative exposure distributions. RESULTS: Baseline prevalence of depression was 52% and 62% initiated ART by 5 years. Compared with mortality under NC (13.2%), immediate ART and elimination of 36% or 67% of depressive episodes were associated with risk differences (RDs) of -5.2% (95% CI: -7.7%, -2.6%) and -5.7 (95% CI: -8.7, -2.7). Compared with immediate ART and NC for depression, additionally eliminating 67% of the depressive episodes was associated with RD = -1.6 (95% CI: -3.9, 0.8). Compared with 5-year mortality under NC for ART and elimination of 67% of depression, also initiating ART immediately was associated with RD = -2.6 (95% CI: -5.0, -0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing ART initiation and reducing depression were associated with moderate reductions in 5-year mortality among HIV-infected women.
Lesko, CR; Todd, JV; Cole, SR; Edmonds, A; Pence, BW; Edwards, JK; Mack, WJ; Bacchetti, P; Rubtsova, A; Gange, SJ; Adimora, AA; WIHS Investigators,
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