Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome in a United States veterans affairs population.


Journal Article

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and its associated risk factors in a US Veterans Affairs population receiving ocular care services. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: settings: Patients were seen in the Miami and Broward Veterans Affairs eye clinics between 2005 and 2010. patients population: Patients were divided into cases and controls with regard to their dry eye status (cases = ICD9 code for DES plus dry eye therapy; controls = patients without ICD9 code plus no therapy). main outcome measures: The prevalence of DES and its associated risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 16 862 patients were identified as either a dry eye case (n = 2056) or control (n = 14 806). Overall, 12% of male and 22% of female patients had a diagnosis of DES, with female gender imparting a 2.40 increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.04-2.81) over male gender. Several medical conditions were found to increase DES risk including post-traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.75-2.23), depression (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.73-2.10), thyroid disease (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.46-2.26), and sleep apnea (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.97-2.46) (all analyses adjusted for gender and age). The use of several systemic medications, including anti-depressant medications (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.79-2.17), anti-anxiety medication (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.58-1.91), and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia medications (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51-1.86), was likewise associated with an increased risk of DES. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DES was found to be high in both men and women in our eye care population. This is the first study to demonstrate that in a veteran population, several diagnoses were significantly associated with DES, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Galor, A; Feuer, W; Lee, DJ; Florez, H; Carter, D; Pouyeh, B; Prunty, WJ; Perez, VL

Published Date

  • September 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 152 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 377 - 384.e2

PubMed ID

  • 21684522

Pubmed Central ID

  • 21684522

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-1891

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.02.026


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States