The association between urbanization and reduced renal function: findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health concern in low- and middle-income countries, such as China, few studies have investigated the association between urbanization and the occurrence of CKD in those countries.We investigated the association between urbanization and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), an important CKD risk marker. Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey wave 2009, in which we collected fasting serum, individual and household data along with community level urbanization data, which was used to derive a study-specific urbanization measure, in 218 communities across nine provinces. A total of 3644 men and 4154 women participants aged 18 years or older were included in the analysis. Reduced renal function was defined as eGFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 measured using serum creatinine concentration (mg/dL).After adjusting for socio-demographic (e.g., age, education and household income), a sex-stratified multilevel logistic model revealed that living in a more urbanized community was associated with higher odds of reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38 per one-standard deviation [SD] increase in the CHNS specific urbanization index, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.73 for men; OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11-1.62 for women). After adjusting for behavioral variables (i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and diet), as well as obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors, the association was attenuated in men (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.98-1.59), but remained statistically significant in women (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01-1.52).Our findings suggest that living in an urban environment is linked with higher odds of reduced renal function independently of behavioral and cardiometabolic risk factors, which have been shown to increase along with urbanization.
Inoue, Y; Howard, AG; Thompson, AL; Mendez, MA; Herring, AH; Gordon-Larsen, P
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)