The healthy men study: an evaluation of exposure to disinfection by-products in tap water and sperm quality.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Chlorination of drinking water generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), which have been shown to disrupt spermatogenesis in rodents at high doses, suggesting that DBPs could pose a reproductive risk to men. In this study we assessed DBP exposure and testicular toxicity, as evidenced by altered semen quality.


We conducted a cohort study to evaluate semen quality in men with well-characterized exposures to DBPs. Participants were 228 presumed fertile men with different DBP profiles. They completed a telephone interview about demographics, health history, water consumption, and other exposures and provided a semen sample. Semen outcomes included sperm concentration and morphology, as well as DNA integrity and chromatin maturity. Exposures to DBPs were evaluated by incorporating data on water consumption and bathing and showering with concentrations measured in tap water. We used multivariable linear regression to assess the relationship between exposure to DBPs and adverse sperm outcomes.


The mean (median) sperm concentration and sperm count were 114.2 (90.5) million/mL and 362 (265) million, respectively. The mean (median) of the four trihalomethane species (THM4) exposure was 45.7 (65.3) microg/L, and the mean (median) of the nine haloacetic acid species (HAA9) exposure was 30.7 (44.2) microg/L. These sperm parameters were not associated with exposure to these classes of DBPs. For other sperm outcomes, we found no consistent pattern of increased abnormal semen quality with elevated exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) or haloacetic acids (HAAs). The use of alternate methods for assessing exposure to DBPs and site-specific analyses did not change these results.


The results of this study do not support an association between exposure to levels of DBPs near or below regulatory limits and adverse sperm outcomes in humans.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Luben, TJ; Olshan, AF; Herring, AH; Jeffay, S; Strader, L; Buus, RM; Chan, RL; Savitz, DA; Singer, PC; Weinberg, HS; Perreault, SD

Published Date

  • August 2007

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 115 / 8

Start / End Page

  • 1169 - 1176

PubMed ID

  • 17687443

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC1940094

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-9924

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0091-6765

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1289/ehp.10120


  • eng