The effect of water disinfection by-products on pregnancy outcomes in two southeastern US communities.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


To determine if exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) during gestation increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes, specifically term small for gestational age (SGA) birth, preterm birth (PTB), and very PTB (<32 weeks' gestation).


We used weekly measurements total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), five haloacetic acids (HAA5), and total organic halides (TOX) collected from two distribution systems to evaluate the associations between DBP concentrations and term SGA, PTB, and very PTB using logistic regression.


We found no associations between DBPs and term-SGA. In the site with higher concentrations of bromine-containing DBPs, we found an association between TOX and PTB; this association was larger, though less precise, for very PTB.


Our results do not support an association between TTHMs or HAA5 and the birth outcomes investigated, but an association was found between increased TOX and PTB.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Horton, BJ; Luben, TJ; Herring, AH; Savitz, DA; Singer, PC; Weinberg, HS; Hartmann, KE

Published Date

  • October 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 53 / 10

Start / End Page

  • 1172 - 1178

PubMed ID

  • 21915074

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3693937

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1536-5948

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1076-2752

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/jom.0b013e31822b8334


  • eng