Correlates of intake of folic acid-containing supplements among pregnant women.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


This study describes the timing and correlates of folic acid supplement intake among pregnant women.

Study design

Data from 2518 women with estimated delivery dates from 1997 to 2000, collected for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, were analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify correlates of supplement intake.


Fifty-three percent of women began taking folic acid supplement during the periconceptional period, 35% during early pregnancy, and 8% during late pregnancy (ie, 3 months before through 1 month after conception, 2-3 months after conception, or more than 3 months after conception, respectively). Women who did not take folic acid supplement periconceptionally tended to be nonwhite, speak Spanish, have low education, be younger than 25 years old, be nulliparous, smoke, have no previous miscarriage and no fertility treatments, begin prenatal care and become aware of their pregnancy after the first trimester, have nonplanned pregnancies, and eat less breakfast cereal.


This study identifies correlates of folic acid supplement intake, which may contribute to the design of interventions to improve intake during early pregnancy.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Carmichael, SL; Shaw, GM; Yang, W; Laurent, C; Herring, A; Royle, MH; Canfield, M; National Birth Defects Prevention Study,

Published Date

  • January 2006

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 194 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 203 - 210

PubMed ID

  • 16389033

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC1775038

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1097-6868

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0002-9378

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.06.018


  • eng