Near-simultaneous intravital microscopy of glucose uptake and mitochondrial membrane potential, key endpoints that reflect major metabolic axes in cancer.
While the demand for metabolic imaging has increased in recent years, simultaneous in vivo measurement of multiple metabolic endpoints remains challenging. Here we report on a novel technique that provides in vivo high-resolution simultaneous imaging of glucose uptake and mitochondrial metabolism within a dynamic tissue microenvironment. Two indicators were leveraged; 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) reports on glucose uptake and Tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) reports on mitochondrial membrane potential. Although we demonstrated that there was neither optical nor chemical crosstalk between 2-NBDG and TMRE, TMRE uptake was significantly inhibited by simultaneous injection with 2-NBDG in vivo. A staggered delivery scheme of the two agents (TMRE injection was followed by 2-NBDG injection after a 10-minute delay) permitted near-simultaneous in vivo microscopy of 2-NBDG and TMRE at the same tissue site by mitigating the interference of 2-NBDG with normal glucose usage. The staggered delivery strategy was evaluated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in normal tissues as well as in a murine breast cancer model. The results were consistent with those expected for independent imaging of 2-NBDG and TMRE. This optical imaging technique allows for monitoring of key metabolic endpoints with the unique benefit of repeated, non-destructive imaging within an intact microenvironment.
Zhu, C; Martinez, AF; Martin, HL; Li, M; Crouch, BT; Carlson, DA; Haystead, TAJ; Ramanujam, N
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