The effect of antipyretics on immune response and fever following receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine in young children.
BACKGROUND: Antipyretics reduce fever following childhood vaccinations; after inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) they might ameliorate fever and thereby decrease febrile seizure risk, but also possibly blunt the immune response. We assessed the effect of antipyretics on immune responses and fever following IIV in children ages 6 through 47 months. METHODS: Over the course of three seasons, one hundred forty-two children, receiving either a single or the first of 2 recommended doses of IIV, were randomized to receive either oral acetaminophen suspension (n = 59) or placebo (n = 59) (double-blinded) or ibuprofen (n = 24) (open-label) immediately following IIV and every 4-8 h thereafter for 24 h. Blood samples were obtained at enrollment and 4 weeks following the last recommended IIV dose. Responses to IIV were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). Seroprotection was defined as an HAI titer ≥1:40 and seroconversion as a titer ≥1:40 if baseline titer <1:10 or four-fold rise if baseline titer ≥1:10. Participants were monitored for fever and other solicited symptoms on the day of and day following IIV. RESULTS: Significant differences in seroconversion and post-vaccination seroprotection were not observed between children included in the different antipyretic groups and the placebo group for the vaccine antigens included in IIV over the course of the studies. Frequencies of solicited symptoms, including fever, were similar between treatment groups and the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Significant blunting of the immune response was not observed when antipyretics were administered to young children receiving IIV. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to definitively establish the effect of antipyretics on IIV immunogenicity.
Walter, EB; Hornik, CP; Grohskopf, L; McGee, CE; Todd, CA; Museru, OI; Harrington, L; Broder, KR
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