TSCQ study: a randomized, controlled, open-label trial of daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or weekly chloroquine among adults on antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Before antiretroviral therapy (ART) became widely available in sub-Saharan Africa, several studies demonstrated that daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis reduced morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended administering TS prophylaxis to this group. However, the applicability of the results to individuals taking ART and living in sub-Saharan Africa has not been definitively evaluated. This study aims to determine if TS prophylaxis benefits HIV-infected Malawian adults after a good response to ART. If TS prophylaxis does indeed show benefit, it is important to determine if this is due to its antibacterial and/or antimalarial properties. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, open-label, phase III trial of continued standard of care prophylaxis with daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) compared to discontinuation of standard of care TS prophylaxis and starting weekly chloroquine (CQ) prophylaxis or discontinuation of standard of care TS prophylaxis. The study will randomize 1400-1500 HIV-infected adults (equally divided over the three study arms) with a nondetectable viral load and a CD4 count of 250/mm(3) or more from antiretroviral therapy clinics in Blantyre and Zomba. The expected rate of primary endpoint events of death and WHO stage 3 and 4 events is 6.8 per 100 person-years of follow-up in all participants. Assuming the number of events follows a Poisson distribution and average participant follow-up after 10 % loss to follow-up is 41.6 months, the study will have approximately 85 % power to rule out a reduction of 35 % or more in primary endpoint events in the TS or CQ arms compared to discontinuation of TS prophylaxis-i.e., to show that discontinuation of TS prophylaxis is noninferior to either TS or CQ, with a noninferiority margin of 35 %. Ethical and regulatory approvals were obtained from the University of Malawi College of Medicine Research Ethics Committee; the Malawi Pharmacy, Medicines and Poisons Board; and the University of Maryland Baltimore Institutional Review Board. DISCUSSION: The study began recruitment activities at the Ndirande site in November 2012. The sponsor agreed to extend and expand the study in early 2015, and a second site, Zomba, was added for recruitment and follow-up in mid-2015. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01650558 (registered on 6 July 2012). PROTOCOL VERSION: Letter of amendment #1 to the DAIDS-ES 10822 TSCQ Malawi Protocol, Version 4.0, 16 December 2014.
Laurens, MB; Mungwira, RG; Nyirenda, OM; Divala, TH; Kanjala, M; Muwalo, F; Mkandawire, FA; Tsirizani, L; Nyangulu, W; Mwinjiwa, E; Taylor, TE; Mallewa, J; Blackwelder, WC; Plowe, CV; Laufer, MK; van Oosterhout, JJ
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