No evidence of delayed parasite clearance after oral artesunate treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Mali.
Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins by delayed parasite clearance is present in Southeast Asia. Scant data on parasite clearance after artemisinins are available from Africa, where transmission is high, burden is greatest, and artemisinin use is being scaled up. Children 1-10 years of age with uncomplicated malaria were treated with 7 days of artesunate and followed for 28 days. Blood smears were done every 8 hours until negative by light microscopy. Results were compared with a similar study conducted in the same village in 2002-2004. The polymerase chain reaction-corrected cure rate was 100%, identical to 2002-2004. By 24 hours after treatment initiation, 37.0% of participants had cleared parasitemia, compared with 31.9% in 2002-2004 (P = 0.5). The median parasite clearance time was 32 hours. Only one participant still had parasites at 48 hours and no participant presented parasitemia at 72 hours. Artesunate was highly efficacious, with no evidence of delayed parasite clearance. We provide baseline surveillance data for the emergence or dissemination of P. falciparum resistance in sub-Saharan Africa.
Maiga, AW; Fofana, B; Sagara, I; Dembele, D; Dara, A; Traore, OB; Toure, S; Sanogo, K; Dama, S; Sidibe, B; Kone, A; Thera, MA; Plowe, CV; Doumbo, OK; Djimde, AA
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