Clinical Fractures Among Older Men With Diabetes Are Mediated by Diabetic Complications.
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus among older women has been associated with increased bone mineral density, but paradoxically with increased fracture risk. Findings among older men have varied, and potential mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Methods: A retrospective study of male veterans 65 to 99 years of age who received primary care in the Veterans Health Administration from 2000 to 2010, using administrative data from all 146 Veterans Health Administration medical centers linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Medicare fee-for-service data. Potential mediating factors of the diabetes-associated risk were evaluated using negative binomial regression models with the outcomes of any clinical fracture and hip fracture. Results: Of 2,798,309 Veterans included in the cohort, 900,402 (32.3%) had a diagnosis of diabetes. After adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, body mass index, alcohol and tobacco use, rheumatoid arthritis, and corticosteroid use, the risk of any clinical fracture associated with diabetes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 1.23) and that of hip fracture was 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.23). Significant mediating factors included peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, and congestive heart failure, with 45.5% of the diabetes-associated fracture risk explained by these diagnoses. Conclusions: Older male Veterans with diabetes have a 22% increased risk of incident clinical fracture compared with those without. A significant portion of this risk is explained by diabetes-related comorbidities, specifically peripheral neuropathy and congestive heart failure. Identification of these mediating factors suggests possible mechanisms, as well as potential interventions.
Lee, RH; Sloane, R; Pieper, C; Lyles, KW; Adler, RA; Van Houtven, C; LaFleur, J; Colón-Emeric, C
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