Risk Factors for Incident Carotid Artery Revascularization among Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study
© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Population-based risk factors for carotid artery revascularization are not known. We investigated the association between demographic and clinical characteristics and incident carotid artery revascularization in a cohort of older adults. Methods: Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants, a population-based cohort of 5,888 adults aged 65 years or older enrolled in two waves (1989-1990 and 1992-1993), 5,107 participants without a prior history of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or cerebrovascular disease had a carotid ultrasound at baseline and were included in these analyses. Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for incident carotid artery revascularization. Results: Over a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, 141 participants underwent carotid artery revascularization, 97% were CEA. Baseline degree of stenosis and incident ischemic cerebral events occurring during follow-up were the strongest predictors of incident revascularization. After adjustment for these, factors independently associated with an increased risk of incident revascularization were: hypertension (HR 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.23), peripheral arterial disease (HR 2.57; 95% CI: 1.34-4.93), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.23 per standard deviation [SD] increment [35.4 mg/dL]; 95% CI: 1.04-1.46). Factors independently associated with a lower risk of incident revascularization were: female gender (HR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34-0.77) and older age (HR 0.69 per SD increment [5.5 years]; 95% CI: 0.56-0.86). Conclusions: Even after accounting for carotid stenosis and incident cerebral ischemic events, carotid revascularization is related to age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors. Further study of these demographic disparities and the role of risk factor control is warranted.
Garg, PK; Koh, WJH; Delaney, JA; Halm, EA; Hirsch, CH; Longstreth, WT; Mukamal, KJ; Kucharska-Newton, A; Polak, JF; Curtis, L
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