Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems and Their Services
© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) is affecting a number of critical benefits, or ecosystem services. We review the main ecological functions and their services across a variety of ECEs, including marshes, mangroves, nearshore coral reefs, seagrass beds, and sand beaches and dunes. We cite estimates of the key economic values arising from these services, and discuss how the natural variability of ECE impacts their benefits, the synergistic relationships of ECE across seascapes, and the management implications.
Barbier, EB; Hacker, SD; Koch, EW; Stier, AC; Silliman, BR
Volume / Issue
- Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science
Start / End Page
International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)