Efficacy and Safety of Adding Ezetimibe to Statin Therapy Among Women and Men: Insight From IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial).
BACKGROUND: IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) showed that adding the nonstatin ezetimibe to statin therapy further reduced cardiovascular events in patients after an acute coronary syndrome. In a prespecified analysis, we explore results stratified by sex. METHODS AND RESULTS: In IMPROVE-IT, patients with acute coronary syndrome and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 50 to 125 mg/dL were randomized to placebo/simvastatin 40 mg or ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg. They were followed up for a median of 6 years for the primary composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, coronary revascularization ≥30 days, and stroke. Among 18 144 patients in IMPROVE-IT, 4416 (24%) were women. At 12 months, the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline compared with simvastatin monotherapy in men and women equally (absolute reduction, 16.7 mg/dL in men and 16.4 mg/dL in women). Women receiving ezetimibe/simvastatin had a 12% risk reduction over those receiving placebo/simvastatin for the primary composite end point (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.99) compared with a 5% reduction for men (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.01; P=0.26 for interaction). When the total number of primary events was considered, women had an 18% reduction with the addition of ezetimibe (relative risk, 95% confidence interval, 0.81; 0.71-0.94) and men had a 6% reduction (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.02; P=0.08 for interaction). The addition of ezetimibe did not increase the rates of safety events in either women or men. CONCLUSIONS: IMPROVE-IT demonstrated that the benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin is present in both women and men, with a good safety profile supporting the use of intensive, combination, lipid-lowering therapy to optimize cardiovascular outcomes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00202878.
Kato, ET; Cannon, CP; Blazing, MA; Bohula, E; Guneri, S; White, JA; Murphy, SA; Park, J-G; Braunwald, E; Giugliano, RP
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