Thiopyranol[2,3,4-c,d]indoles as inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein, and leukotriene C4 synthase.
The attachment of an arylacetic or benzoic acid moiety to the thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indole nucleus results in compounds which are highly potent and selective 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors. These compounds are structurally simpler than previous compounds of similar potency in that they contain a single chiral center. From the data presented, 2-[[1-(3-chlorobenzyl)-4-methyl-6-[(5-phenylpyridin-2-yl)methoxy]- 4, 5-dihydro-1H-thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indol-2-yl]methoxy]-phenylacetic acid, 14b, was shown to inhibit 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE) production by human 5-LO (IC50 of 18 nM). The acid 14b is highly selective as an inhibitor of 5-LO activity when compared to the inhibition of ram seminal vesicle cyclooxygenase (IC50 > 5 microM) or human leukocyte leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase (IC50 > 20 microM). In addition, 14b was inactive in a 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) binding assay at 10 microM. In vivo studies showed that 14b is bioavailable in rat and functionally active in the hyperreactive rat model of antigen-induced dyspnea (74% inhibition at 0.5 mk/kg po; 2 h pretreatment). In the conscious squirrel monkey model of asthma, 14b showed excellent functional activity at 0.1 mg/kg against antigen-induced bronchoconstriction (94% inhibition of the increase in RL and 100% inhibition in the decrease in Cdyn; n = 4). Resolution of this compound gave (-)-14b, the most potent enantiomer (IC50 = 10 nM in the human 5-LO assay), which was shown to possess the S configuration at the chiral center by X-ray crystallographic analysis of an intermediate. Subsequent studies on the aryl thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indole series of inhibitors led to the discovery of potent dual inhibitors of both FLAP and 5-LO, the most potent of which is 2-[[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-4-methyl-6-(quinolin-2-ylmethoxy)-4, 5-dihydro-1H-thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indol-2-yl]methoxy]phenylacetic acid, 19. Acid 19 has an IC50 of 100 nM for the inhibition of 5-HPETE production by human 5-LO and is active in a FLAP binding assay with an IC50 of 32 nM. Furthermore, thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indoles such as 1 and 14b are capable of inhibiting the LTC4 synthase reaction in a dose dependent manner (IC50s of 11 and 16 microM, respectively, compared to that of LTC2 at 1.2 microM) in contrast to other, structurally distinct 5-LO inhibitors. It has also been observed that the thiopyrano[2,3,4-c,d]indole class of compounds strongly promotes the translocation of 5-LO from the cytosol to a membrane fraction in the presence or absence of the ionophore A23187.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Hutchinson, JH; Charleson, S; Evans, JF; Falgueyret, JP; Hoogsteen, K; Jones, TR; Kargman, S; Macdonald, D; McFarlane, CS; Nicholson, DW
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