Thiopyrano[2,3,4-cd]indoles as 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors: synthesis, biological profile, and resolution of 2-[2-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-4-methyl-6-[(5-phenylpyridin-2-yl)methoxy]-4,5 -dihydro-1H-thiopyrano[2,3,4-cd]indol-2-yl]ethoxy]butanoic acid.
Leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors have potential as new therapies for asthma and inflammatory diseases. The recently disclosed thiopyrano[2,3,4-cd]indole class of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors has been investigated with particular emphasis on the side chain bearing the acidic functionality. The SAR studies have shown that the inclusion of a heteroatom (O or S) in conjunction with an alpha-ethyl substituted acid leads to inhibitors of improved potency. The most potent inhibitor prepared contains a 2-ethoxybutanoic acid side chain. This compound, 14d (2-[2-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-4-methyl-6-[(5-phenylpyridin-2-yl)methox y]- 4,5-dihydro-1H-thiopyrano[2,3,4-cd]indol-2-yl]ethoxy]-butanoic acid, L-699,333), inhibits 5-HPETE production by human 5-LO and LTB4 biosynthesis by human PMN leukocytes and human whole blood (IC50s of 22 nM, 7 nM and 3.8 microM, respectively). The racemic acid 14d has been shown to be functionally active in a rat pleurisy model (inhibition of LTB4, ED50 = 0.65 mg/kg, 6 h pretreatment) and in the hyperreactive rat model of antigen-induced dyspnea (50% inhibition at 2 and 4 h pretreatment; 0.5 mg/kg po). In addition, 14d shows excellent functional activity against antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in the conscious squirrel monkey [89% inhibition of the increase in RL and 68% inhibition in the decrease in Cdyn (0.1 mg/kg, n = 3)] and in the conscious sheep models of asthma (iv infusion at 2.5 micrograms/kg/min). Acid 14d is highly selective as an inhibitor of 5-LO activity when compared to the inhibition of human 15-LO, porcine 12-LO and ram seminal vesicle cyclooxygenase (IC50 > 5 microM) or competition in a FLAP binding assay (IC50 > 10 microM). Resolution of 14d affords 14g, the most potent diastereomer, which inhibits the 5-HPETE production of human 5-LO and LTB4 biosynthesis of human PMN leukocytes and human whole blood with IC50s of 8 nM, 4 nM, and 1 microM respectively. The in vitro and in vivo profile of 14d is comparable to that of MK-0591, which has showed biochemical efficacy in inhibiting ex vivo LTB4 biosynthesis and urinary LTE4 excretion in clinical trials.
Hutchinson, JH; Riendeau, D; Brideau, C; Chan, C; Falgueyret, JP; Guay, J; Jones, TR; Lépine, C; Macdonald, D; McFarlane, CS
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