Analysis of ventricular activation using surface electrocardiography to predict left ventricular reverse volumetric remodeling during cardiac resynchronization therapy.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure with left bundle branch block reduces left ventricular (LV) conduction delay, contraction asynchrony, and LV end-systolic volume ("reverse remodeling"). Up to one third of patients do not improve, and the electric requirements for reverse remodeling are unclear. We hypothesized that reverse remodeling is predicted by the left bundle branch block ventricular activation sequence, the paced activation sequence, and interactions between these 2 conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve-lead ECGs during left bundle branch block and cardiac resynchronization therapy were analyzed in 202 consecutive patients (New York Heart Association class III to IV heart failure, ejection fraction < or =35%) for predictors of reverse remodeling (> or =10% reduction in end-systolic volume) at 6 months. Greater longest baseline LV activation time predicted increased odds of reverse remodeling (odds ratio [confidence interval]=1.30 [1.11, 1.52] per 10-ms increase), whereas higher QRS scores for LV scar predicted reduced reverse remodeling (odds ratio [confidence interval]=0.49 [0.27, 0.88] for each 1-point increase from 0 to 4; 0.92 [0.83, 1.01] for each 1-point increase >4). After cardiac resynchronization therapy, increasing R amplitudes in leads V(1) through V(2) (odds ratio [confidence interval]=2.76 [1.01, 7.51] for each 1x increase over [baseline Rx4.5]) and left-->right frontal axis shift (odds ratio [confidence interval]=2.00 [0.99, 4.02]), indicators of ventricular activation wavefront fusion, were positive predictors of reverse remodeling. Predicted probability of reverse remodeling ranged from <20% for patients with adverse predictors to 99% for those with positive predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Ventricular activation with the use of the ECG accurately predicts LV reverse remodeling during cardiac resynchronization therapy. Greater longest baseline LV activation time and smaller scar volume combined with wavefront fusion on the paced ECG, anticipate higher probability of reverse remodeling.
Sweeney, MO; van Bommel, RJ; Schalij, MJ; Borleffs, CJW; Hellkamp, AS; Bax, JJ
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