Development and validation of the Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS): use in six studies of adaptation to a health condition or risk.
OBJECTIVE: We introduce The Psychological Adaptation Scale (PAS) for assessing adaptation to a chronic condition or risk and present validity data from six studies of genetic conditions. METHODS: Informed by theory, we identified four domains of adaptation: effective coping, self-esteem, social integration, and spiritual/existential meaning. Items were selected from the PROMIS "positive illness impact" item bank and adapted from the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to create a 20-item scale. Each domain included five items, with four sub-scale scores. Data from studies of six populations: adults affected with or at risk for genetic conditions (N=3) and caregivers of children with genetic conditions (N=3) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). RESULTS: CFA suggested that all but five posited items converge on the domains as designed. Invariance of the PAS amongst the studies further suggested it is a valid and reliable tool to facilitate comparisons of adaptation across conditions. CONCLUSION: Use of the PAS will standardize assessments of adaptation and foster understanding of the relationships among related health outcomes, such as quality of life and psychological well-being. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Clinical interventions can be designed based on PAS data to enhance dimensions of psychological adaptation to a chronic health condition or risk.
Biesecker, BB; Erby, LH; Woolford, S; Adcock, JY; Cohen, JS; Lamb, A; Lewis, KV; Truitt, M; Turriff, A; Reeve, BB
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