Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVE: Alternate day fasting (ADF; 24-h feeding/24-h 25% energy intake at lunchtime), is effective for weight loss, but diet tolerability is questionable. Moving the fast day meal to dinnertime, or dividing it into smaller meals, may improve tolerability. Accordingly, this study compared the effects of ADF with three meal times on body weight and heart disease risk. METHODS: Obese subjects (n = 74) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 8 weeks: 1) ADF-L: lunch, 2) ADF-D: dinner, or 3) ADF-SM: small meals. RESULTS: Body weight decreased similarly (P < 0.001) in all groups (ADF-L: 3.5 ± 0.4 kg, ADF-D 4.1 ± 0.5 kg, ADF-SM 4.0 ± 0.5 kg). Reductions (P < 0.001) in fat mass and visceral fat were also comparable. Plasma lipids remained unchanged, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size increased (P < 0.05) in all groups (1.3 ± 0.5 Å). Systolic blood pressure decreased (P < 0.05) by ADF-SM only. Fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, allowing individuals to consume the fast day meal at dinner or small meals produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as consuming the meal at lunch. This flexibility in meal timing may increase tolerability and long-term adherence to ADF protocols.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Hoddy, KK; Kroeger, CM; Trepanowski, JF; Barnosky, A; Bhutani, S; Varady, KA

Published Date

  • December 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 22 / 12

Start / End Page

  • 2524 - 2531

PubMed ID

  • 25251676

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1930-739X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/oby.20909


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States