Diurnal blood pressure pattern and development of prehypertension or hypertension in young adults: the CARDIA study.
Nondippers (people whose sleep systolic blood pressure [SBP] fails to decrease >10% from daytime SBP) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of nondipping in younger adults has not been well studied, nor has its value for predicting hypertension. We examined the prevalence of nondipping in a substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) conferred by nondipping for incident prehypertension or hypertension (preHTN/HTN) over 15 years. Of the 264 nonhypertensive participants at baseline, 118 (45%) were nondippers. Blacks were more likely than whites to be nondippers (52% versus 33%, P = .004). The incidence rate of preHTN/HTN was 29.2/1000 person-years among dippers and 36.2/1000 person-years among nondippers. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of nighttime to daytime SBP, those in the highest quartile were more likely to develop preHTN/HTN (HR 1.61; P = .06), but this relationship was attenuated after adjustment (HR 1.34; P = .27). Our results demonstrate that nondipping is common in young, nonhypertensive adults, and is more common in blacks than whites. Nondipping might predate a meaningful clinically detected increase in BP in some people, but more research in larger study samples is needed.
Viera, AJ; Zhu, S; Hinderliter, AL; Shimbo, D; Person, SD; Jacobs, DR
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