Minimally invasive treatment of urinary tract calculi in children.
OBJECTIVE: To report experience of a broad multimodality approach to the treatment of calculi in children using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy/laser lithotripsy, lithoclast and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The treatment and outcome were reviewed in 43 children managed by a range of minimally invasive modalities, either singly or in combination, between 1990 and 1997. These patients represent a selected group deemed suitable for minimally invasive management during a period of developing experience with these techniques. Of this cohort, six children had previously undergone open stone surgery and contributory metabolic abnormalities were identified in seven. ESWL was the sole treatment modality in 24 children (56%). In five children (12%) ureteroscopy/laser lithotripsy was combined with ESWL, eight (18%) underwent ureteroscopy/laser lithotripsy alone, whilst three with bladder stones were treated with the lithoclast. Combined therapy including PCNL was required in three patients. RESULTS: Of the 43 children treated, 38 (88%) were rendered stone-free. Metabolic disorders accounted for three of the five cases of residual calculi. Complications requiring intervention occurred in two children (7%) and three subsequently underwent open pyelolithotomy or ureterolithotomy after unsuccessful minimally invasive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Used selectively, the range of minimally invasive procedures available for adults, including ureteroscopy and PCNL, can be safely and effectively extended to the treatment of urinary tract calculi in children. The role of open surgery will diminish further with the availability of specialized instruments for paediatric PCNL.
Fraser, M; Joyce, AD; Thomas, DF; Eardley, I; Clark, PB
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