Post-illumination cellular effects of photodynamic treatment.
Increased interest in clinical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in various medical fields poses a demand for better understanding of processes triggered by photo-treatment. Most of the work on PDT performed so far has focused on the immediate effects of photo-treatment. It is generally accepted that cellular damage occurs during light exposure and within a short period thereafter. If cells are not killed during the PDT, they might recover, depending on the extent of the photo-induced damage. Little is known, however, about the relationship between the properties of photosensitizers (PSs) and the delayed consequences of PDT. The aim of this work was to investigate cellular responses to sub-lethal photodynamic treatment and how toxicogenic potency may be affected by molecular features of the PS. Results demonstrated that for cationic porphyrin-based PSs, lipophilicity is the main factor determining the fate of the cells in the 24-hour post-illumination period. PSs with amphiphilic properties initiated oxidative reactions that continued in the dark, long after light exposure, and caused suppression of metabolism and loss of cell viability with concomitant changes in electrophoretic mobility of proteins, including caspases. Apoptotic activity was not stimulated in the post-illumination period. This study demonstrated that in PDT mediated by amphiphilic cationic metalloporphyrin PSs, even when immediate photo-damage is relatively mild, destructive oxidative processes initiated during PDT continue in the absence of light to substantially impair metabolism, and that post-illumination protein modification may modify utilization of cell death pathways.
Charara, M; Tovmasyan, A; Batinic-Haberle, I; Craik, J; Benov, L
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