Measuring Nanoparticle Attachment Efficiency in Complex Systems.
As process-based environmental fate and transport models for engineered nanoparticles are developed, there is a need for relevant and reliable measures of nanoparticle behavior. The affinity of nanoparticles for various surfaces (α) is one such measure. Measurements of the affinity of nanoparticles obtained by flowing particles through a porous medium are constrained by the types of materials or exposure scenarios that can be configured into such column studies. Utilizing glass beads and kaolinite as model collector surfaces, we evaluate a previously developed mixing method for measuring nanoparticle attachment to environmental surfaces, and validate this method with an equivalent static column system over a range of organic matter concentrations and ionic strengths. We found that, while both impacted heteroaggregation rates in a predictable manner when varied individually, neither dominated when both parameters were varied. The theory behind observed nanoparticle heteroaggregation rates (αβB) to background particles in mixed systems is also experimentally validated, demonstrating both collision frequency (β) and background particle concentration (B) to be independent for use in fate modeling. We further examined the effects of collector particle composition (kaolinite vs glass beads) and nanoparticle surface chemistry (PVP, citrate, or humic acid) on α, and found a strong dependence on both.
Geitner, NK; O'Brien, NJ; Turner, AA; Cummins, EJ; Wiesner, MR
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